23 comments on “Identity Politics in Nepal Terai: Madhesi, Pahadi & Tharu Conflicts

  1. Pingback: Identity Politics in Nepal Terai: Madhesi & Tharu Conflicts

  2. Dear editor,
    I read this above article. But, this article can’t give the solution for the unity between the Nepalese people. This is nor the agenda of true Nepalese people.
    Now, the Maoist is in regime. The Maoist, in the name of transforming the country into ‘New Nepal’ is trying to destroy our culture and traditions. ‘The Maoist ministers are cutting down the budgets of such festivals. The Maoist ministers have shown the same tipe of reluctance while marking other festivals which has been continued in the Nepali society for 1400 years. During the Indra Jatra festival ,the Newar community was agitated when they were faced with the budget cut for marking the festival. The Maoist leaders are seen reluctant in preserving our own indentity.'(Puspa Pradhan) The Maoist leaders are going to undermine our culture Dashain & Tihar and the Maoist leaders and Prime Minister Pracanda have violated our traditional dress for official functions which demonstrate Nepalese identity.

    The republic, securalism & fadaralism is the agenda to destroy Nepal.
    No party leader has any notion toward this aspect. How can the constituent assembly get wayout after doing away all the sensitive norms of the nation.It is meaningless to mull over the nation after doing away with nationality. The national identity such as national dress, national language and the religions of the people should be strengthed to uplift the nation. No nation can improve if the leaders have no concern regarding those aforesaid norms. It will not be in the interest of any Nepali if the nation is disintegrated. The mobocracy is not the concern of the people as it finishes the basic norms and values.
    It is only the monarchy that is a safeguard against the break up of the country and to stop communist dictatorship in the country. Communists would never accept parliamentary democracy and communists would never get along with their class enemies, the parliamentary parties. If parliamentary democracy is the common path of all democratic ideologies, communism is the dictatorship of the so-called proletariats. However, the corrupt and deviant leaders of both the parliamentary parties and the communists are bent on breaking up this country. In multi-party democracy, constructive commitments hold high regards and liberalism, tolerance and freedom of expression are the basic tenets of multi-party democracy. But, the culprits leaders never try to understand the realities of Nepal’s sovereignty and the unity of Nepalese People.
    Thank you.
    Dirgha Raj Prasai

  3. I see Dirghaji raised some concerns about our disappearing identity from a different perspective.
    The task of defining identity is as complex as the concept of identity itself. If you want to get at root of all the ethnic conflicts and violent in the world, it some how winds back to identity. It is an elusive concept, often used differently and advantageously by cunning politicians, bureaucrats and corporates.
    The identity as a Madhesi is not clearly defined in Nepal. The popular notion is that people who speak Maithili in Nepal are Madhesis. But the fact that a certain group speaks Maithili does not make them ‘Madhesis’. There are more people in Bihar who speak Maithili than in Nepal as a whole. There are more people who speak Maithili in the world than there are Nepali speakers, Maithili stands as the 40th most spoken language world in the world. Language alone can not be the basis of an identity. Also, denying the people of hilly origin the identity as ‘Madhesis’ is unethical since many of them have stayed in Terai for a considerable time now. Of course, many of them were moved intentionally and strategically in the past.
    The problem will remain unsolved as long as the complex issue of resolving and defining the identity of Madhesis remains vague and incomplete.

  4. @ Dear Dirgha ji, u’ve made a typical passionate argument in the line of conventional so-called Nepali Nationalism. i think it will suffice for me to say that i believe that republic, secularism, and federalism become inevitable once you talk of democratization of any country with diverse and heterogeneous population. However, i agree with u that my writing of this post can’t give a solution for national unity. i think Prez Dr. Ram Baran is doing a really great job in keeping the national unity. OK, call me a Kangresi or madisey fr admiring Ram Baran… 😀

    @ Dear Madhesi friend, do you really mean that Pahadis living in Madhes should be allowed to contend in the Madhesi quota? If yes, i guess, u might qualify as the next president of Nepal… 😀 But, it’s really ironical that Pahadis r now willing to be ‘categorised’ as Madhesis only to book a seat in the bureaucracy. In any case, i refuse to take any concession of that sort. Anyway, have u noticed where do the Madhesis & Pahadis work most united? The real melting pot fr Nepalis is not the U.S., but the Arab countries, and in abduction, extortion, and criminal gangs. No kidding….do a research man.. 😀

  5. Dear editor,

    I am not convinced about the argumant of Divas. Why he is going to destroy our stablished cultural-nationalism ? He says-‘so-called Nepali Nationalism.?’

    Secularism, Fedaralism & republic is not our need and case. The main problem of nepalese people if foreign’s intervation and corruptions.But, the corrupt leaders are active to destroy Nepalese stability & peace.

    Every nations know that a country’s existence and prestige can gradually be eroded by finishing off its faith and belief tradition and culture traditional faith and cultural beliefs. After the movement of April 2005, the corrupt leaders of so-called big party (Congress, UML, Maoist) at the hint of foreigners are working to disintegrate the country. No country in the world can always bear the interference and the meddling of foreigners. But this country has seen sudden increase of foreign interference and meddling in the last one-and-a-half-years because of the leaders, who are willing to sell themselves and the country situation has turned appalling because of unprecedented level of corruption, mis-management and chaos. Girija of Nepali Congress, Madhav Nepal of UML and Prachanda of the Maoist are fascinated into breaking the country by taking personal vendetta against the king and putting false and made-up traps one after the other.

    Some sold up professors, former corrupt officials in the government, money-minded doctors and lawyers and some vagabond journalists in the name of civil society are adding fuel to their deceptive design. They do not have any loyalty and principle and they reach to where they can get profit. Nepal cannot remain safe until some reactionaries of the so-called civil society and the agents of RAW within the political parties are exposed and punished. Ninety-five percent of those traitors are Parade Bahuns. I am also Parade bahun, but I am ver concious for my nationality from the very begining.
    Nepal has great faith on the United Nations. But its like Ian Martin like representatives who tagged along those traitors made the United Nations a total failure in Nepal. Therefore, such representatives of the UN should be chased away before it is too late.

    If we want the stability of Nepal the all nationalist out-site or within the parties, Nepali army, Courts, adimistrations and all patriots should be ready to save the nation. If we want to save Nepal -The permanent organization that can protect the nation and its identity is the royal institution. We need to coordinate and balance the Nepali nationality, royal institution and democracy, bring the prevalent corruption to an end and to focus on development of backward region and classes against the foreign intervention. We cannot go on supporting the mistakes of the corrupt leaders. Nepal has been running with agreement between the monarch and people for continuation of pro-people royal institution. Republic is Herculean attempt from those who have only thought of their vested interest. No one can survive long by stepping on fire. Royal Institution is compulsion and necessity to establish the nation. Please, conver my this opinion to all the interested groups.That is all.

    Thank you.
    Dirgha Raj Prasai

  6. Thanks Dirgha ji, thanks fr ur prompt response, & i really admire ur concern fr unity among people. But, fr ur detailed analysis. i’m afraid i can’t argue so passionately like u. neither I feel qualified to offer a prescription fr all social malady…Still, i don’t feel like joining you in your philosophy which can be summed up in the well known phrases of Nepali Politics:

    “ Hamro Raja Hamro Desh Prana Bhanda Pyaro Cha

    Hamro Bhasa Hamro Bhesa Prana Bhanda Pyaro Cha

    Panchayati Byabastha – Amar Rahos

    Sree 5 Mahendra – Chirayu Rahun”

    BTW: while chanting these slogans in schools, some of we spoiled brats enjoyed distorting the sacred slogan in this way:

    “Sree 5 Birendra: CHILAYI Rahun” 😀

    PS: Please write your google group link correctly, it doesn’t work.


  7. Dirgaji,

    There are a couple of comments I want to make here.

    First, I am impressed with your passion for the country. Second, stop calling the editor and divas different people. Divas is the editor of this article, isn’t he?
    Third, even though I am impressed with your passion and moved by your dystopic and frustrated description of Nepal’s ailing situation, I disagree with you a number of major issues.

    You said ,”The main problem of nepalese people if foreign’s intervation and corruptions.”
    The main problem of Nepal is not foreign intervention. That is a part of the problem, a lateral effect of myopic leaders. The main problem of Nepal, pay attention, is the lack of a strong leadership.

    Any country, you name it, and I can show you has only progressed through a strong leadership. Foreign Intervention could be sidelined and diluted with a strong leadership. Look at Cuba, it was under more foreign influence than any other country but the way Castro led the nation with a strong fist kept even mighty powers like the United States at bay. And the living conditions in Cuba are not that bad either. It has somewhere like 15000$ per capita.

    Yes, Dirgajhi, we are currently experiencing a serious vacuum of visionary leadership. Divas, did you say I should be the next president? Thanks man. I would keep my fingers crossed ;))

    Fourth, you said, “If we want to save Nepal -The permanent organization that can protect the nation and its identity is the royal institution.”
    I disagree with you, dirghaji. If you think we still regard kings as incarnations of Lord Vishnu and that they have descended from Sun God or something then I don’t know what to say to you. Gone are the days of superstition. We don’t have to regard someone as the king because of his heritage and inheritance. They have to prove they are capable. Alternatively, if you are suggesting that kingship should be maintained while the king should be chosen as the most able person, someone who has prove his ability rather than through inheritance then that could be a valid suggestion. But after all, presidents are akin to those symbolic powers who try to maintain unity by welcoming foreign visitors, receiving them at the airports and giving them company when they leave, keep them as guests in the guest-house near their presidential building.

    Keep this going. I am liking the comments and views by you two. Feel free to criticize the views of ‘Next President’, is it divas?

  8. Pingback: Global Voices Online » Nepal: Identity politics

  9. Dear friends,
    I am convinced about ‘The main problem of Nepal is the lack of a strong leadership.’ But, how you can find among these leaders who are all the agents of India. If we have parmanent institution (people oriented monarchy) we should stand as a sovereign citizens.
    Dear editor,
    May I analysis about the situation frankly ?

    Why would there be a need of a King if Nepal can survive without it ? But Nepal should not be compared to other nations. Nepal does not demand an autocratic royal institution but a pro-people institution. The institution of monarchy is such a force that fights off imperialist force to create a greater Nepal. The King of Nepal never sold the nation, pleaded before foreigners nor killed the people and will never do so. I wouldn’t have said so if I was a citizen of Japan or any other nation, I would have said that the nation will survive without the monarchy, but I am in Nepal. The geographical and class reality of Nepal is such, that the absence of monarchy would mean there will be no Nepal.

    This nation was created with joint efforts between the people and the King. Royal Institution is the backbone of Nepali nationality; it is a pillar of trust for continuing stability between China and India. The royal institution is the base pillar for the lasting creative democratic nationalism, which is pessimistic towards autocratic and imperialist management, traitors and terrorism. Nepal as a republic can pose a threat to both India and China. The royal institution is in row, because some Maoist leaders, puppets from Nepali Congress, and UML following Indian directives went against the royal institution. Nepal is a country having a rich cultural heritage. Now, the Maoist is in regime. The antinationalist pro-Indian leaders are trying to destroy our culture and traditions. The Maoist leaders are going to undermine our culture Dashain & Tihar and the Maoist leaders and Prime Minister Pracanda have violated our traditional dress for official functions which demonstrate Nepalese identity.

    Nepal & Indian culture & traditions is in danger. But, Why India is striving to end the identity of Nepal Nepal and Nepali people spread across the world are very much angry at the nude intervention by India.

    So, please, never try ‘exercise in futility’. Their should me our moto-
    no ends justify the means but,means justify the ends’ for Nepal’s around stability.
    Thank you.
    Dirgha Raj Prasai

  10. Well friends, although we share many similar traits, Divas and the semi-underground editor abc of this blog are as different people as are Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. While Divas has his own opinion and sometimes even expresses offensive remarks, I’ve found that abc tries to remain neutral is all disputes…& like most bloggers incl you, sometimes we think of quitting blogging altogether…

    Yes Madhesi frien, i wished u fr next president of Nepal because of ur generosity to accept Pahadi origin people in Terai as members of ur own community. However, it has it’s own practical difficulties…but i think showing ur openness is more imp in resolving any conflict.

    Prez Dr. Rambaran is doing a great job simply by wearing a defunct dress called daura surwal & speaking of national unity in all his speeches to address the ‘hamro bhasa hamro bhesa’ concerns of so-called nationalist people like Dirgh ji… 😀

    About Dirghji, I’d say again that although he shuns other Pahadiya Bahuns except himself as the RAW agents, he himself seems to be unaware of hw his Bahunbad arrogance pervades in his jingoistic national & cultural views.

  11. Chhetri and brahmin are different caste, so why we are included in the same in above chart . Chhetris are now being deprived due to this case and hardly seen in UML, NC and maoist parties. So, we should fight for our different identity.

  12. Dirghaji,

    Royal institution as a uniting force is all good, everyone would be all smiles if it were effective as an institution.
    As a good analyst, you must have realized how royal institution was becoming defunct and aristocratic in the past. By appointing Panchayat-era hardcore royalists, it was not moving in a positive direction. It was not giving us hope, instead,we were apprehensive that the royal institution was trying to move us in Panchayat era, an era that our countrymen got rid of through struggle.
    Royalists were proving to be very irresponsible. Road accidents by royalists was on the rise and they didn’t care because they could get away with it. If Maoists were the terrorists at that time, royalists were the criminals impersonated as protectors.
    Also, our taxes were not being used in the best ways possible. Why would we pay our taxes for private tours of royal family members to foreign countries. If they have such lofty demands for luxury then they should be using their own earnings which are not insignificant either keeping in mind the low living costs of a poor nation, Nepal. The expenses of royal palace was adding insult to the penury, widening our deficits.
    Also, what was our king doing? He was only seen as participating in religious ceremonies. He left all his administrative works to his little puppets and was busy in religious rituals. What for? You can not make ‘virtue out of poverty’. Religion is not going to feed hungry stomachs. If you advocate a royal institution, dirghaji then all of these aspects will have to be taken care of. Moreover, if the king tries to be active and take administration into his own hands, there is always the chance of he becoming a tyrant since he would have unparalleled power. A tyrant dictator could be worse than incompetent and corrupt Prime Minister and his cabinet since there is always the option of check and balance.

  13. Dear Madhesi Friend,
    I am not convince about your arguments about the Nepalese nationality & monarchy. I am not the blind supporter of monarchy, but, I am in Nepal, as a Nepali, I want the soverign country, I think, without monarchy Nepal can’t stand.
    Nepalese monarchy is the most convincing identity of Nepal’s independence and its sovereignty. Nepal could remain an independent and sovereign country only because of monarchy. Indian conspirators are taking some deviant leaders of the political parties on their shoulders with the sole aim that it will be easy for them to control Nepal if monarchy can be displaced. But such a situation will be a happy one for India also.
    Dear friend !
    If we want to save the identities & sovereignty of our country there must be reinstate the monarchy. So, all the nationalists withen the parties & outsite we should request the King to mideate to salve the crisis.
    Can the future of the country be decided just because so called big political parties ganged up together? Those powerful nations, who in the past shed blood in Vietnam, North and South Korea, East and West Germany, Cambodia, Afghanistan and Yugoslavia, are now trying to drag Nepal into a civil war. So, if the political leaders, including the Maoists, tried to trample on this truth, one should know that the existence of Nepal will be finished. Please, reply with comment.
    Thaat is all.
    Thank you.
    Dirgha Raj Prasai

  14. Enough is enough. Yesterday’s news reports state that the agitating Tharus of Chitwan, Siraha, & Bardia prevented even the rickshaws carrying sick people from reaching hospitals. Hundreds of foreign tourists and thousands of Nepali passengers are stranded on the road. i was sympathetic to the Tharus until they were protesting decently. But now i don’t understand why Tharus are protesting for being categorized as Madhesis – especially when Tharus seem to be imitating the same Madhesi method of ethnic cleansing & terror strategy during the first Madhesi Movement. Torturing commoners in the name of movement is a crime regardless of who do it – Madhesi, Pahadi, or Tharu. If this is called the New Nepal, I’m sorry to say that for me it’s a Wrong Nepal.

  15. I am happy to say that I like Dirgha Prasain’s comments and it also a valid point that one article cannot provide the solution of a country which is being destroyed by misguided unethical leaderships.

  16. Strategic Nepalese National Security Paper

    Nepal’s vision is “unity in diversity”. The mission is to integrate all Nepalese regardless of gender, ethnicity, race, colour, sexual orientation, and disability, and provide them with a new constitution based charter of human rights. The objectives are to provide human security to all Nepalese for basic security needs like food, water, shelter, health and education for free by 2050 AD.

    The strategies to meet objectives is by integrating via merits 5,000 Maoists cadres in the Nepal Army, and 4,000 in the National Police and remaining in alternative security forces (i.e. from 15,000 registered Maoist cadres). Nepal should decrease the Army size from current 80,000 to 25,000 over next five years, and from therein for generating national income allocate about 12,000 as peace keepers, and peacemakers for the United Nation’s (UN) peacekeeping operations overseas. The size of the National Police should be reduced from current 30,000 to 20,000 over next five years.

    From herein allocate 5,000 to the UN’s peacekeeping mission overseas. Nepal’s reputation will be enhanced as loyal, and well branded soldiers, and police with the famous Gorkha name intact. There is need today for developing National Security Council, through strengthening the Ministry of Defense, and facilitating a national discourse on the strategic purposes of Nepal’s security establishment. The other allied strategies to achieve the vision will be to win hearts and minds of Nepalese people in an ongoing basis as the paragraphs below will state, and findings in conclusion reveals how strategies will be met in a sustainable manner (Chalmers, 2009).

    National core competency of Nepal cannot be reduced in any moment, and circumstances, which consists of its sovereign interests. Such is the core value that the true patriots of Nepal are willing to sacrifice ultimately with theirs’ sweat, tear and blood as it is required now, and in the foreseeable future (Adhikari, 2009). In recent times Nepal’s vital interests have gone unprotected, when India did not allow the very protection of Nepal’s territory at Susta, Bara and Dang through ‘land encroachment’, which has disturbed the preservation of Nepalese national prestige. Thus, it is the moral duty of all Nepalese to protect the nation to be a failed state and/or make it remain as a fragile state (Adhikari, 2009).

    It is desirable to see the nation grow out from the rank of least developed nation, which is to that of a transition emerging market economy by 2050 AD. This implies moving away from stage one to stage 2 development, which is defined, based in competitiveness evaluation of Nepal’s institutions and policies and other factors. It is also measured via productivity of the nation through economic competitiveness like institutions, infrastructure, macroeconomic stability, health and primary education, higher education and training, goods market efficiency, labour market efficiency, financial market sophistication, technological readiness, market size, and business sophistication and innovation. Currently, Nepal remains in the bottom of the list competing with failed nations like Somalia, Iraq and Afghanistan (Porter & Schwab, 2008-2009).

    The Royal government of the day stood in ‘stoic silence’ as the nation was involved in the Nepalese Maoist uprising from 1996 to 2006. Now, the conflict has ended, and regime change has occurred, Nepal is once again united in diversity. It is time to send a loud and clear message to India with a vision formulated by Gautama Buddha of Lumbini, Nepal that says, “Love your neighbour” (Adhikari, 2009). This is just the new beginning for the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal without a national constitution, transformational leader to heal the wounds of domestic civil war, disarray of national unity with countless aspiring political parties. There is now vision, mission, goals or objectives and strategy for national integration for Nepal. For starter, good role model is South Africa, which can be taken from what it achieved under Nelson Mandela (Pandey, 2009).

    Historically the destiny of Nepal was based in the vision of Prithibi Narayan Shah of Gorkha, who united Nepal like Bismarck of Germany. He saw in his vision that Nepal was a ‘Yam plant straddled between two giant rocks’, which by analogy implied great neighbours China to the north and India to the south. Nepal as it has evolved, and in different phases rocked between China and India through carefully charting its own destiny. Many mistakes were made and Nepal also paid heavy price accordingly with abundant examples in the history of modern Nepal (Pandey, 2009). Nepal should continue chartering its own independent foreign policy by not taking any side of any unilateral or regional hegemonic power. Nepal should join regional trade forums, and multilateral institutions to gain business sophistication, and increase its person power for the knowledge economy.

    It is time to bring Nepal totally unscathed from the various hotchpotches of political conflicts induced locally, and ward off Nepal’s national integrity, sovereignty, and unity in diversity stemming such opportunistic threats to the nation as it stands today from India. So far political system change has occurred as desired by the sovereign people of Nepal. However, preservation of national security and interests remain wholly intact, which deserves immediate attention from all responsible patriotic sections of the Nepalese society (Thapa, 2009).

    According to a UN Integrated Regional Information Networks, IRIN (2009) Maoist senior leaders have lost control to incidents caused by party workers, who make intimidation, threats, and extortion. The International Crisis Group (2009) opined totally halting the policing functions of the Young Communist League (YCL) is a must to aid in developing trust in the local communities all over Nepal. YCL is a vigilante group of unemployed and disillusioned youths, who regularly are alleged of beatings, kidnappings, extortion and even murder. Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (2009) indicated that the YCL was formed in 2006, which is mainly composed of former People’s Liberation Army (PLA) commanders, and they are in age from 16 to 40. YCL have “attacked political opponents, journalists, alleged drug users, and individuals suspected of extramarital relations” like the Taliban in Afghanistan (Human Rights Watch) or (HRW 2009). Therefore, for national security, and national interest YCL should be banned immediately to bring peace and harmony to the local communities of Nepal.

    OHCHR (2009), opined that majority of rural population are politically underrepresented, and excluded from access to justice, and other public services. Thus, there is vicious cycle of poverty to these living in the margins, and are systemically discriminated based on theirs’ gender, ethnicity, caste or sexual orientation. So far the failure of the peace accord has failed to address these concerns, which has resulted in numerous protests, and strikes, particularly in the Terai region, which borders with India. (UN, 2009).

    OHCHR (2009) reports about significant rise in the in the number of gangs, and armed groups in the Terai region, and indicated that these groups are unpredictable catalyst for extreme violence and crime. Furthermore, protests in the Terai region are linked to the issue of the rights of the Madheshi communities, who are Indian ethnic minorities, and backed by Indian grand strategic design to ultimately takeover Nepal like it did to Sikkim a long time ago (HRW 2009, p. 276).

    India perceives it may have a positive overall role in Nepal. It took a radical position in bringing the Maoists into the political mainstream, and pushed for elections, when there was severe international opposition. United States saw everything through a narrow focus through the ‘war on terror’. However, India tried to manifestly micro-manage the process of what Nepal is now. Moreover, on the election front India got its calculations wrong by ‘predicting’ Nepali Congress and United Marxists Leninists would do well. However, Indian attempts ‘to roll back the Maoists mass popularity’ by attempting to use Madhesi political activism through starting, and backing specific pro Indian Madhesi party failed, when it was ‘routed in the elections’ (Chalmers, 2009).

    The tensions between numerous big and small political parties should be reduced via confidence building projects. Nepal should consider Maoist combatants to be integrated in new security organs as soon as it becomes practical, with remaining in the cantonments, and based on theirs’ merits in new security organs like the border security forces, and industrial security forces. Just assessing such vision has some merits but it may not be possible as the records of the former combatants are less than desirable to the local communities. Alternatively, they may be mobilized as flora and fauna security forces, and mobilized as infrastructure pioneer forces (i.e. utilize them for construction of school, roads etc.) (Bhandari , 2009).

    Alternatively, others can be part of a national inclusion program and be provided with special technical and vocational training, and when they are ready they should be absorbed in various jobs demanded by the market. Others who desire should be given money, and they should earn their living through self-employment themselves. For some former combatants should be given special package program (i.e. compensation and vocational training) so that they can go to their own home (Bhandari). The more options are available in choice making the better it is for the national security and national interest in the medium to long term.

    The demand of Maoists to condemn the president for not sacking the Chief of Army recently should not be condoned. The hassles by them opposing unilaterally about the constitution that reflects multiparty democracy should not be tolerated either. Every stakeholder of peace for Nepal should give priority to bringing about a comprehensive constitution as soon as possible. This should be implemented to secure national security and national interest of stability as soon as possible. The issue of Maoist cantonments should be managed according to peace accord. The workings of the special committee and technical committee (i.e. of peace accord brokered by UN) should be made transparent, also they should be held accountable to the national parliament. All these things should be kept in focus and blended smoothly and fast with some sequencing mechanism in place (Bhandari, 2009).

    The parliament should be inclusive of international and national non governmental organizations in this national security initiative, which will provide a basis to win hearts and minds of the oppressed people of Nepal. They all bring cumulatively expertise and specialization in alternative formats to combat slackening pace of development, to fight injuries, and diseases, reduction of hunger, and poverty, in diffusion of knowledge, education, and training, mitigating violence and conflict, to provide relief of the oppressed women, children, and disabled, provide social security for the poor, and vulnerable, and further provide contribution for credible and sustainable future development of peace, progress and prosperity of Nepal (AIN, 2008-2010, p.1).

    Vital task lies ahead to reduce poverty in Nepal. This initiative requires invigoration after a decade long conflict. While the peace accord is starting to stagnate and people are perceiving escalation of another Maoist insurgency, which is a symptom of rising and persistent inequality along ethnic and gender lines, non delivery of basic public services, lagging opportunities of income, and employment for the rural sector, where majority of the poor live. This weakness has to be addressed very fast as the top most priority by the government of the day. There is lack of public expenditure, and budget allocations again in basic social security needs delivery to the poor in meeting primary education, basic heath, nutritious food and so on as decentralized government is dysfunctional in the local communities. There is increased corruption in the central government, the Army generals are looting the fund brought in by soldiers via United Nations’ peace keeping missions for private use, same can be said of the national police, who are abusing the basic human rights of local people and have not been able to provide justice. The power of the Commission for Investigation of Abuse of Authority should be increased through transparency and accountability; to reduce epidemic on going corruption and human rights abuses (IDA & IMF, 2003).

    Nepal is vulnerably exposed to global climate change faces increasing various intensities of multitude of natural hazards such as flood, landslide, earthquake, fire, cyclonic winds and hailstorms, cloudburst, drought, famine, and epidemics. Further, Industrial accidents, explosion, traffic accidents and hazardous events linked to poisonous substances. Statistics reveal past disastrous events during 1971-2006 reveals epidemics takes the largest toll of life every year, which implies Nepal is extremely vulnerable to bird flue and now Swine fever. In addition landslide, flood (including the flash floods) and urban or rural fire are the principle hazards in terms of their extent and frequency of occurrences, which causes significant upheaval to society and economy well above what Nepal can afford. The National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management in Nepal should be linked with the national security strategy in meeting the goal, and objective of ‘disaster resilient Nepal’ in providing guidance to improve policy, and legal environment in prioritizing the strategic interventions (NSDR, 2009).

    In concluding this strategic national security paper for our glorious motherland Nepal, we have introduced a vision, mission, objectives and strategies (i.e. the main one being inclusive of all and allied ones to win heart and minds of all Nepalese). The successful outcome will be based on the tactics that Nepalese soldiers earn hard currency from UN peacekeeping missions, which will be utilized in meeting the ongoing operational costs of remaining allied and interrelated strategies, with the main national security strategy in partnership with various tiers of governments, private and non governmental sectors. Thus, our mission will be accomplished when we see the confidence of our citizens grows, and peace, progress and prosperity grows to unite us all for happier days ahead in future to come.

    Long live Nepal.

    Adhikari, P. (2009). “National Interest and national Security of Nepal: Seminar’. The Sangam Institute for Policy Analysis and Strategic Studies. Kathmandu, Nepal.

    AIN (2008-2010). ‘Association of International NGOs in Nepal: An informal grouping of NGOs working in Nepal.’ AIN Strategic Plan 2008-2010. Publisher: AIN Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Bhandari, R. (2009). ‘Only some percentage of Maoist combatants will be merged in Nepal Army.’ The Daily IIJ. (2009). http://inwent-iij-lab/Weblog

    Chalmers, R (2009). ‘Nepalese Security and Strategic Prospects’. International Peace and Conflict Studies: Seminar 2009. http://www.ipcs.org/index.php

    Human Rights Watch (HRW). 2009. “Nepal.” World Report 2009. Accessed on 16 Jan. 2009. Available on:

    IDA & IMF (2003). The International Development Association and International Monetary Fund 2003: Nepal Joint Staff Assessment of the poverty reduction strategy paper. Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (2009). Nepal: Overview of the political situation (2007-2008). Accessed on 16 February 2009, NPL103007.E, available at:

    International Crisis Group. ICG (2008). Nepal’s Election: A Peaceful Revolution? (Asia Report No. 155). Accessed 1 September 2009. Available on:
    OCHA (2009). Nepal Situation Overview. Accessed 19 Jan. 2009. Available on:

    (Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights) OHCHR (2009). “OHCHR in Nepal (2008-2009).” Accessed 5 Jan. 2009. Available on:

    Pandey, S.R. (2009). “National Interest and national Security of Nepal: Seminar’. The Sangam Institute for Policy Analysis and Strategic Studies. Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Porter, M.E., & Schwab, K. (2008-2009). Global Competitiveness Index. Publisher: World Economic Forum. Geneva, Switzerland.

    NSDR (2009). National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management in Nepal. Publisher: United Nations Development Program. Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Thapa, K. (2009). “National Interest and national Security of Nepal: Seminar’. The Sangam Institute for Policy Analysis and Strategic Studies. Kathmandu, Nepal.

    (United Nations) UN (2009). “Nepal: Former Maoist Rebels Causing Trouble.” Accessed 19 Jan. 2009. Available on:

  17. dear what the fuck

    i know wanna why you ppl wanna stay in nepal man…. come on
    why don’t you madhesis fuck off to bangladesh….. i don’t want any fucking ugly
    madhesi’s living in my country man go somewhere else…. fuck off and go somewhere else

    but tibetans are welcome in Nepal
    ulgy madhesi can fuck off and bother showing your ugly face in Nepal

    bcuz nobody wants to see your Black Ugly Dark skin ppl like u in Nepal
    go to fucking Africa To All Fucking Madhesi

  18. Dear Readers / concerned Nepal Lovers

    What has been done is done?

    But where is the solution all agitating protesters demand of state , continued disturbance falling economy ,unemployment .

    Who is loosing ?

    Every Nepal resident.
    Think about it Phadis/madehsis/Tharus.
    what r u giving to Ur coming generations.

    Think from your mind & Heart and find a peaceful solution.

    Don’t think from your Assholes.

    You have disturbed the severity of peaceful Nepal.

    FUCK Maoists Fuck Prachand

  19. well i read through this article….i really sympathise with my tribe coz my tribe tharu is vanishing and we are being recognised as madhesis….which is not fair….madhesis should be thrown away from nepal or should be kicked out for violating the peaceful nepal.in addition, tharus should raise their voice for such kind…….

  20. Tharu are the indigenous/native people of Terai region and Tharu people are the Dhartiputra of Terai region. But this so called madhesi people are trying to categorize Tharu as Madhesi so that they can consider themselves as indigenous people. In Teari region this madesi people are recognized as desi means who came from India after the eradiction of malariya in Terai region.

  21. wat a fucking discussion over here the tharus matwali copied our culture, tradition I mean the culture of maithil people who are the indigenous inhabitants of madhesh… u fucking and sucking bastards should be under our feet”‘: the uncivilized foolish fellows get lost to Tibet or Mongolia… how dare u to claim madhesh as your land fuck off all the tharus and Mongolians….

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